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High School for Language Arts
Tenth Grade students deepen their study of language, informational text, and literature and hone skills in reading, writing, and speaking that help them in other subjects. Students expand their study of vocabulary by distinguishing between denotative and connotative meanings of words and applying their knowledge of roots from Greek and Latin to draw inferences about meaning. Students analyze and evaluate a wide variety of American, English, and world nonfiction and literary text and informational text. They study the important works and
authors, poets, and playwrights of various historical periods and critique their works. High school students become good researchers and write or deliver increasingly sophisticated research reports and multimedia presentations. The ability to develop an idea and express it persuasively helps students create strong oral and written skills that they can use in college and the workplace.
Decoding and Word Recognition: Analyze words, recognize words, and learn to read grade-level text fluently across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.01 Read at an independent and instructional reading level appropriate to grade level.
Listen to and Read Informational and Narrative Text: Listen to, read, and understand a wide variety of informational and narrative text across the subject areas at school and on own, applying comprehension strategies as needed.
*Suggested grade-level target for reading ON OWN: High School: 1,500,000 words annually.
EL.HS.RE.02 Listen to, read, and understand a wide variety of informational and narrative text, including classic and contemporary literature, poetry, magazines, newspapers, reference materials, and online information.
EL.HS.RE.03 Make connections to text, within text, and among texts across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.04 Demonstrate listening comprehension of more complex text through class and/or small group interpretive discussions across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.05 Match reading to purpose--location of information, full comprehension, and personal enjoyment.
EL.HS.RE.06 Understand and draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed--re- reading, self-correcting, summarizing, class and group discussions, generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, and comparing information from several sources.
EL.HS.RE.07 Clearly identify specific words or wordings that are causing comprehension difficulties and use strategies to correct.
Vocabulary: Increase word knowledge through systematic vocabulary development; determine the meaning of new words by applying knowledge of word origins, word relationships, and context clues; verify the meaning of new words; and use those new words accurately across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.08 Understand, learn, and use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly through informational text, literary text, and instruction across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.09 Develop vocabulary by listening to and discussing both familiar and conceptually challenging selections read aloud across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.10 Determine meanings of words using contextual and structural clues. EL.HS.RE.11 Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases.
EL.HS.RE.12 Distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words, and interpret the connotative power of words.
EL.HS.RE.13 Use general dictionaries, specialized dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses, or related references to increase vocabulary.
EL.HS.RE.14 Understand technical vocabulary in subject area reading.
Read to Perform a Task: Find, understand, and use specific information in a variety of texts across the subject areas to perform a task.
EL.HS.RE.15 Read textbooks; biographical sketches; letters; diaries; directions; procedures; magazines; essays; primary source historical documents; editorials; news stories; periodicals; bus routes; catalogs; technical directions; consumer, workplace, and public documents.
EL.HS.RE.16 Synthesize information found in various parts of charts, tables, diagrams, glossaries, or related grade-level text to reach supported conclusions.
EL.HS.RE.17 Analyze the structure and format of job and consumer-related materials, including the graphics and headers, and explain how the features support the intended purposes.
EL.HS.RE.18 Demonstrate sophisticated use of technology by following directions in technical manuals (e.g., those found with graphing calculators and specialized software programs and in access guides to World Wide Websites on the Internet).
Informational Text: Demonstrate General Understanding: Demonstrate general understanding of grade-level informational text across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.19 Identify and/or summarize sequence of events, main ideas, facts, supporting details, and opinions in informational and practical selections.
EL.HS.RE.20 Clarify understanding of informational texts by creating sophisticated outlines, graphic organizers, diagrams, logical notes, or summaries.
Informational Text: Develop an Interpretation: Develop an interpretation of grade- level informational text across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.21 Predict probable future outcomes supported by the text.
EL.HS.RE.22 Infer an author's unstated meaning and draw conclusions about an author's stated meaning based on facts, events, images, patterns or symbols found in text.
EL.HS.RE.23 Make reasoned assertions about an author's arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations.
EL.HS.RE.24 Analyze implicit relationships, such as cause-and-effect, sequence-time relationships, comparisons, classifications, and generalizations.
EL.HS.RE.25 Infer the main idea when it is not explicitly stated, and support with evidence from the text.
Informational Text: Examine Content and Structure: Examine content and structure of grade-level informational text across the subject areas.
EL.HS.RE.26 Draw conclusions about the author's purpose based on evidence in the text.
EL.HS.RE.27 Differentiate among reasoning based on fact versus reasoning based on opinions, emotional appeals, or other persuasive techniques.
EL.HS.RE.28 Evaluate if and how the author uses authoritative sources to establish credibility for arguments, proposed actions, or policies.
EL.HS.RE.29 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.
EL.HS.RE.30 Evaluate the logic, unity, and consistency of text.
EL.HS.RE.31 Evaluate an author's argument or defense of a claim by evaluating the relationship between generalizations and evidence, the comprehensiveness of evidence, and the way in which the author's intent or bias affects the structure and tone of the text (e.g., in professional journals, sports journals, editorials, political speeches, primary source material).
EL.HS.RE.32 Evaluate the logic of documents (e.g., directions for assembly of an item, applications), examining the sequence of information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings.
EL.HS.RE.33 Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched.
EL.HS.RE.34 Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and related topics to demonstrate comprehension.
EL.HS.RE.35 Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.
Listen to and Read Literary Text: Listen to text and read text to make connections and respond to a wide variety of literature of varying complexity.
EL.HS.LI.01 Listen to text and read text to make connections and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that enhance the study of other subjects.
EL.HS.LI.02 Demonstrate listening comprehension of more complex literary text through class and/or small group interpretive discussions.
Literary Text: Demonstrate General Understanding: Demonstrate general understanding of grade-level literary text.
EL.HS.LI.03 Identify and/or summarize sequence of events, main ideas, and supporting details in literary selections.
Literary Text: Develop an Interpretation: Develop an interpretation of grade-level literary text.
EL.HS.LI.04 Predict probable future outcomes supported by the text, including foreshadowing clues.
EL.HS.LI.05 Analyze interactions between characters in a literary text (e.g., internal and external conflicts, motivations, relationships, influences) and how these interactions affect the plot.
EL.HS.LI.06 Identify themes in literary works, and provide support for interpretations from the text.
EL.HS.LI.07 Infer the main idea when it is not explicitly stated, and support with evidence from the text.
EL.HS.LI.08 Identify and analyze unstated reasons for actions or beliefs based on explicitly stated information.
Literary Text: Examine Content and Structure: Examine content and structure of grade-level literary text.
EL.HS.LI.09 Identify various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory, and symbolism; evaluate the significance of the devices; and explain their appeal.
EL.HS.LI.10 Interpret and evaluate the impact of subtleties, contradictions, and ironies in a text.
EL.HS.LI.11 Explain how voice and the choice of a narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a text.
EL.HS.LI.12 Analyze an author's development of time and sequence, including the use of complex literary devices, such as foreshadowing or flashbacks.
EL.HS.LI.13 Evaluate the impact of word choice and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme.
EL.HS.LI.14 Identify and describe the function of dialogue, soliloquies, asides, character foils, and stage directions in dramatic literature.
EL.HS.LI.15 Analyze the impact the choice of literary form has on the author's message or purpose.
EL.HS.LI.16 Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period.
EL.HS.LI.17 Compare works that express a universal theme, and provide evidence to support the ideas expressed in each work.
EL.HS.LI.18 Compare and contrast the presentation of a similar theme or topic across literary forms to explain how the selection of form shapes the theme or topic.
EL.HS.LI.19 Analyze a work of literature, showing how it reflects the heritage, traditions, attitudes, and beliefs of its author.
Planning, Evaluation, and Revision: Pre-write, draft, revise, edit, and publish across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.01 Use a variety of strategies to prepare for writing, such as brainstorming, making lists, mapping, outlining, grouping related ideas, using graphic organizers, and taking notes.
EL.HS.WR.02 Discuss ideas for writing with classmates, teachers, and other writers, and develop drafts alone and collaboratively.
EL.HS.WR.03 Identify audience and purpose.
EL.HS.WR.04 Choose the form of writing that best suits the intended purpose--personal letter, letter to the editor, review, poem, report, or narrative.
EL.HS.WR.05 Use the writing process--prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing successive versions.
EL.HS.WR.06 Focus on a central idea, excluding loosely related, extraneous, and repetitious information.
EL.HS.WR.07 Use a scoring guide to review, evaluate, and revise writing for meaning and clarity.
EL.HS.WR.08 Revise drafts to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling idea, the precision of word choice, and the tone--by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.
EL.HS.WR.09 Edit and proofread one's own writing, as well as that of others, using the writing conventions, and, for example, an editing checklist or list of rules with specific examples of corrections of specific errors.
Writing: Communicate supported ideas across the subject areas, including relevant examples, facts, anecdotes, and details appropriate to audience and purpose that engage reader interest ; organize information in clear sequence, making connections and transitions among ideas, sentences, and paragraphs ; and use precise words and fluent sentence structures that support meaning.
EL.HS.WR.10 Establish a coherent and clearly supported thesis that engages the reader, conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject, maintains a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing, and ends with a well supported conclusion.
EL.HS.WR.11 Create an organizational structure that logically and effectively presents information using transitional elements that unify paragraphs and the work as a whole.
EL.HS.WR.12 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, and appropriate modifiers.
EL.HS.WR.13 Demonstrate an understanding of sentence construction--including parallel structure and subordination--to achieve clarity of meaning, vary sentence types, and enhance flow and rhythm.
Conventions: Spelling: Demonstrate knowledge of spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and penmanship across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.14 Produce writing that shows accurate spelling.
Conventions: Grammar: Demonstrate knowledge of spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and penmanship across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.15 Show control of clauses, including main and subordinate, and phrases, including gerund, infinitive, and participial.
EL.HS.WR.16 Understand and use proper placement of modifiers.
EL.HS.WR.17 Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage, including the consistent use of verb tenses and forms.
Conventions: Punctuation: Demonstrate knowledge of spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and penmanship across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.18 Use conventions of punctuation correctly, including semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens and dashes.
Conventions: Capitalization: Demonstrate knowledge of spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and penmanship across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.19 Use correct capitalization.
Conventions: Handwriting: Demonstrate knowledge of spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and penmanship across the subject areas.
EL.HS.WR.20 Write legibly.
Writing Modes: Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas.
Personal Narrative Fictional Narrative Expository Persuasive
Writing Applications: Narrative Writing: Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas.
*Suggested word length: High School, 500-1,500 words.
EL.HS.WR.21 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories:
Relate a sequence of events, and communicate the significance of the events to the audience. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.
Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters' feelings.
Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood.
Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.
Writing Applications: Expository Writing: Response to Literary Text (4-HS): Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas. *Suggested word length: High School, 500- 1,500 words.
EL.HS.WR.22 Write responses to literature:
Demonstrate an understanding of the significant ideas of literary works.
Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.
Demonstrate an awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.
Identify and analyze the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
Writing Applications: Expository Writing: Research Reports/ Multi-media Presentations (4-HS): Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas. *Suggested word length: High School, 500-1,500 words.
EL.HS.WR.23 Write analytical essays and research reports:
Gather evidence in support of a thesis, including information on all relevant perspectives. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs.
Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations. Use technical terms and notations accurately.
Writing Applications: Persuasive Writing (4-HS): Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas. *Suggested word length: High School, 500-1,500 words.
EL.HS.WR.24 Write persuasive compositions:
Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion.
Use specific rhetorical (communication) devices to support assertions, such as appealing to logic through reasoning; appealing to emotion or ethical beliefs; or relating a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy.
Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning. Address readers' concerns, counter-claims, biases, and expectations.
Writing Applications: Summaries, Business Letters, Job Applications and Resumes, Technical Writing (4-HS): Write narrative, expository, and persuasive texts, using a variety of written forms—including journals, essays, short stories, poems, research reports, research papers, business and technical writing—to express ideas appropriate to audience and purpose across the subject areas. *Suggested word length: High School, 500-1,500 words.
EL.HS.WR.25 Write business letters:
Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the intended audience.
Emphasize central ideas or images.
Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that contributes to the document's readability and impact.
EL.HS.WR.26 Write technical documents, such as a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, or minutes of a meeting:
Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly. Offer detailed and accurate specifications.
Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension. Anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.
Research Report Writing: Investigate topics of interest and importance across the subject areas, selecting appropriate media sources, using effective research processes, and demonstrating ethical use of resources and materials.
EL.HS.WR.27 Use clear research questions and suitable research sources, including the library, electronic media, and personal interviews, to gather and present evidence from primary and secondary print or Internet sources.
EL.HS.WR.28 Use effective note-taking techniques to ensure appropriate documentation of quoted as well as paraphrased material.
EL.HS.WR.29 Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting evidence, such as scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, and definitions.
EL.HS.WR.30 Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium, including almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, and technical documents.
EL.HS.WR.31 Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.
EL.HS.WR.32 Use appropriate conventions for documentation in text, notes, and works cited, following the formats in specific style manuals (e.g., Works Cited Entries--MLA, Reference Entries--APA).
EL.HS.WR.33 Design and publish documents by using publishing software and graphics programs.
EL.HS.WR.34 Reflect manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material, such as citing sources within the text, using direct quotations, and paraphrasing.
Speaking and Listening
Speaking: Communicate supported ideas across the subject areas using oral, visual, and multimedia forms in ways appropriate to topic, context, audience, and purpose ; organize oral, visual, and multimedia presentations in clear sequence, making connections and transitions among ideas and elements ; use language appropriate to topic, context, audience, and purpose ; and demonstrate control of eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, inflection, gestures, and other non- verbal techniques. *Suggested speech length: High School, 3-7 minutes.
EL.HS.SL.01 Present and support a clear thesis statement and choose appropriate types of proof (e.g., statistics, testimony, specific instances) that meet standard tests for evidence, including credibility, validity, and relevance.
EL.HS.SL.02 Choose appropriate techniques for developing the introduction and conclusion (e.g., by using literary quotations, anecdotes, references to authoritative sources).
EL.HS.SL.03 Choose logical patterns of organization (e.g., chronological, topical, cause-and- effect) to inform and to persuade, by seeking agreement or action, or uniting audiences behind a common belief or cause.
EL.HS.SL.04 Recognize and use elements of speech forms (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, conclusion) in formulating rational arguments and applying the art of persuasion and debate.
EL.HS.SL.05 Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience, and choose effective verbal techniques and language.
EL.HS.SL.06 Use appropriate grammar.
EL.HS.SL.07 Use props, visual aids, graphs, and/or electronic media to enhance the appeal and accuracy of rehearsed presentations (not part of scoring guide criteria).
EL.HS.SL.08 Produce concise notes for extemporaneous speaking (not part of scoring guide criteria).
EL.HS.SL.09 Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience, and choose effective verbal and non-verbal techniques, such as volume, expression, rate, gestures, eye contact for presentations.
Listening: Listen critically and respond appropriately across the subject areas.
EL.HS.SL.10 Formulate judgments about ideas under discussion, and support those judgments with convincing evidence.
EL.HS.SL.11 Follow complex verbal instructions that include technical vocabulary and processes.
Analysis: Evaluate the significance and accuracy of information and ideas presented in oral, visual, and multimedia communications across the subject areas.
EL.HS.SL.12 Evaluate the clarity, quality, and effectiveness of a speaker's important points, arguments, evidence, organization of ideas, delivery, diction, and syntax.
EL.HS.SL.13 Identify and analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion, and logic.
EL.HS.SL.14 Identify the aesthetic effects of a media presentation, and evaluate the techniques used to create them.
EL.HS.SL.15 Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (e.g., televised news, news magazines, documentaries, online information) cover the same event.
EL.HS.SL.16 Analyze historically significant speeches (e.g., Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream") to find the rhetorical devices and features that make them memorable.
EL.HS.SL.17 Analyze how language and delivery affect the mood and tone of the oral communication and make an impact on the audience.